Essays on how mesopotamian and egyptian cultures differ

One on my favorite things that we studied in that class was ancient Empires. Herman, my AP teacher during that time, went through the Mesopotamian and Egyptian Empires rather too quickly for my tastes. I felt as though there were a lot of things. Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt Before the beginning of history, people from across the land gradually developed numerous cultures, each unique in some ways while the same time having features in common. Mesopotamia and Egypt are important to the history of the world because of religious, social, political and economic development.


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Mesopotamia was the first civilization, which was around B. Mesopotamia emerged from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The soil was rich and agriculture was plentiful. The Semitic nomads occupied the land around Akkad. The Sumerians established the city-states. Villages became urban centers. Because of the formation of the city-states everything …show more content…. The knowledge of geometry and trigonometry was used for the building of cities, palaces, temples and canals. Medicine in Mesopotamia was a combination of surgery, prescriptions and magic. They believed that the cause of sickness were due to demons and evil spirits and they only way to be delivered from it was to drive the spirits away by magic.

Or the physician could force the demon out by giving the patient bad tasting medicine. As time went on and the knowledge of medicine grew, some medicines were found to work and some were not. It was very dangerous to practice medicine because the penalties for failure were severe. If a physician made a mistake and caused the death of his patient, his hands would be chopped off.

Religion played a big part of the Mesopotamians. They believed in many gods and the gods had different jobs to perform. They did not consider the gods to be equal. People offered sacrifices to their gods to please them.

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Three Civilizations That Influenced The Mesopotamian Culture History Essay

Assyria was extant from as early as the 25th century BC, and became a regional power with the Old Assyrian Empire c. The earliest mention of Babylon then a small administrative town appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC. The Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC. Over years later, it briefly took over the other city-states and formed the short lived First Babylonian Empire during what is also called the Old Babylonian Period.

Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia all used the written East Semitic Akkadian language for official use and as a spoken language. By that time, the Sumerian language was no longer spoken, but was still in religious use in Assyria and Babylonia, and would remain so until the 1st century AD. The Akkadian and Sumerian traditions played a major role in later Assyrian and Babylonian culture, even though Babylonia unlike the more militarily powerful Assyria itself was founded by non-native Amorites and often ruled by other non-indigenous peoples, such as Kassites , Arameans and Chaldeans , as well as its Assyrian neighbours.

Mesopotamia: Overview and Summary

Its sites were discovered and named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi The Altai Mountains in what is now southern Russia and central Mongolia have been identified as the point of origin of a cultural enigma termed the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon. In China, the earliest bronze artifacts have been found in the Majiayao culture site between and BC. The term "Bronze Age" has been transferred to the archaeology of China from that of Western Eurasia, and there is no consensus or universally used convention delimiting the "Bronze Age" in the context of Chinese prehistory.

By convention, the "Early Bronze Age" in China is sometimes taken as equivalent to the " Shang dynasty " period of Chinese prehistory 16th to 11th centuries BC , [37] and the "Later Bronze Age" as equivalent to the " Zhou dynasty " period 11th to 3rd centuries BC, from the 5th century also dubbed " Iron Age " , although there is an argument to be made that the "Bronze Age" proper never ended in China, as there is no recognizable transition to an "Iron Age". Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou Wade—Giles : Erh-li-t'ou period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty.

The widespread use of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture dates to significantly later, probably due to Western influence. While there may be reason to believe that bronzework developed inside China separately from outside influence, [43] the discovery of Europoid mummies in Xinjiang suggests a possible route of transmission from the West beginning in the early second millennium BC.

A few human mummies alone cannot provide sufficient explanation of metallurgy transmission. Furthermore, the oldest bronze objects found in China so far were discovered at the Majiayao site in Gansu rather than Xinjiang [45].

While some direct information about the Shang dynasty comes from Shang-era inscriptions on bronze artifacts, most comes from oracle bones — turtle shells, cattle scapulae, or other bones — which bear glyphs that form the first significant corpus of recorded Chinese characters. Iron is found from the Zhou dynasty , but its use is minimal. Chinese literature dating to the 6th century BC attests knowledge of iron smelting, yet bronze continues to occupy the seat of significance in the archaeological and historical record for some time after this.

White argues that iron did not supplant bronze "at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty BC " and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels all the way through the Later Han period , or to BC [ sic? The Chinese bronze artifacts generally are either utilitarian, like spear points or adze heads, or "ritual bronzes" , which are more elaborate versions in precious materials of everyday vessels, as well as tools and weapons. Examples are the numerous large sacrificial tripods known as dings in Chinese; there are many other distinct shapes.

Surviving identified Chinese ritual bronzes tend to be highly decorated, often with the taotie motif, which involves highly stylized animal faces. These appear in three main motif types: those of demons, of symbolic animals, and of abstract symbols. The bronzes of the Western Zhou dynasty document large portions of history not found in the extant texts that were often composed by persons of varying rank and possibly even social class.

Further, the medium of cast bronze lends the record they preserve a permanence not enjoyed by manuscripts. Bronze artifacts from Daegok-ri, Hwasun , Korea. The beginning of the Bronze Age on the peninsula is around — BC. The Mumun pottery period is named after the Korean name for undecorated or plain cooking and storage vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage over the entire length of the period, but especially — BC. The Mumun period is known for the origins of intensive agriculture and complex societies in both the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Archipelago.

The Middle Mumun pottery period culture of the southern Korean Peninsula gradually adopted bronze production c. BC after a period when Liaoning-style bronze daggers and other bronze artifacts were exchanged as far as the interior part of the Southern Peninsula c. The bronze daggers lent prestige and authority to the personages who wielded and were buried with them in high-status megalithic burials at south-coastal centres such as the Igeum-dong site.

Bronze was an important element in ceremonies and as for mortuary offerings until Bronze and iron smelting techniques spread to the Japanese archipelago through contact with other ancient East Asian civilizations, particularly immigration and trade from the Korean peninsula and ancient Mainland China. Iron was mainly used for agricultural and other tools, whereas ritual and ceremonial artifacts were mainly made of bronze.

Inhabitants of the Indus Valley, the Harappans , developed new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. The Late Harappan culture, which dates from — BC, overlapped the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age; thus it is difficult to date this transition accurately.

Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt

It has been claimed that a 6, year old copper amulet manufactured in Mehrgarh in the shape of wheel spoke is the earliest example of lost wax casting in the world. Dating is still currently broad — BC. Ban Chiang, however, is the most thoroughly documented site while having the clearest evidence of metallurgy when it comes to Southeast Asia. With a rough date range of late 3rd millennium BC to the first millennium AD, this site alone has various artifacts such as burial pottery dating from — BC , fragments of Bronze, copper-base bangles, and much more.

Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt Essay - Words | Bartleby

What's interesting about this site, however, isn't just the old age of the artifacts but the fact that this technology suggested on-site casting from the very beginning. The on-site casting supports the theory that Bronze was first introduced in Southeast Asia as fully developed which therefore shows that Bronze was actually innovated from a different country. These relate to the prehistoric Dong Son Culture of Vietnam. Archaeological research in Northern Vietnam indicates an increase in rates of infectious disease following the advent of metallurgy; skeletal fragments in sites dating to the early and mid-Bronze Age evidence a greater proportion of lesions than in sites of earlier periods.

The other one is decreased levels of immunocompetence in the Metal age due to changes in diet caused by agriculture. The last is that there may have been an emergence of infectious disease in the Da But period that evolved into a more virulent form in the metal period. The production of complex tin bronzes lasted for c. The authors reported that evidence for the production of such complex bronzes disappears at the end of the 5th millennium coinciding with the "collapse of large cultural complexes in north-eastern Bulgaria and Thracein the late fifth millennium BC". Tin bronzes using cassiterite tin would be reintroduced to the area again some years later.

The Aegean Bronze Age began around BC, when civilizations first established a far-ranging trade network. This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus , where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze. Bronze objects were then exported far and wide, and supported the trade. Isotopic analysis of tin in some Mediterranean bronze artifacts suggests that they may have originated from Great Britain. Knowledge of navigation was well developed at this time, and reached a peak of skill not exceeded except perhaps by Polynesian sailors until when the invention of the chronometer enabled the precise determination of longitude.

The Minoan civilization based in Knossos on the island of Crete appears to have coordinated and defended its Bronze Age trade. Illyrians are also believed to have roots in the early Bronze Age. Ancient empires valued luxury goods in contrast to staple foods , leading to famine. Bronze Age collapse theories have described aspects of the end of the Age in this region. At the end of the Bronze Age in the Aegean region, the Mycenaean administration of the regional trade empire followed the decline of Minoan primacy. This would indicate that the trade network may have failed, preventing the trade that would previously have relieved such famines and prevented illness caused by malnutrition.

It is also known that in this era the breadbasket of the Minoan empire, the area north of the Black Sea , also suddenly lost much of its population, and thus probably some capacity to cultivate crops.