Essay on problems of education in india
Higher Education Higher education is an educational level which is offered after school education primary, secondary and senior secondary. Higher education consists of education which is offered at colleges, universities, institute of technology, vocational institutes, career colleges etc. Higher education compromises of teaching, social involvement of universities, research works and many others. A large number of institutes offer higher education courses at different levels and subjects.
Higher education degree is offered after one to five or ten years of study at different educational institutes in India. The structure of higher education in India follows three main levels. All higher education courses are offered in various subjects. Bachelor Degree courses in all areas are offered to those students who have passed 12th level exam from a recognized board or university and three to five years of education.
Master Degree or post graduate degree courses are usually two years of education except for some professional courses. Master Degree courses are offered to those students who qualified Bachelor Degree or undergraduate courses. Pre-doctoral course M.
Phil Master of Philosophy is offered to master degree holders. Figure 4. Doctoral Degree Higher education means different things to different people in a society full of diversity, opinions and ideologies.
Different views from different people are expected. What is higher in higher education? We should ask ourselves when we discuss and learn more about quality in higher education, we will agree as a teacher of higher education that it is not just about the higher level of educational structure in the country. Higher education in terms of the level includes teaching learning of college and university by which students attain higher educational qualification. Higher education gives in depth understanding and knowledge so as to make students move towards new boundaries of knowledge in different walks of life.
It is about gaining more and more knowledge which develops the ability in student to question and find truth and makes them able to judge on existing issues.
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It not only makes the intellectual powers of the individual wider within a narrow specialization but also gives them a broader perspective of the world around. Thus, higher education is input to the development and growth of industry and business. Higher education in this view making of qualified researchers and scientists who would keep on developing the knowledge frontiers. Within this viewpoint quality is more about transmission of the academic rigor and research publications to do quality research.
It is strongly believed that teaching is the main activity of educational institutions. Efficient management of teaching learning provisions by enabling a higher completion rate among the students, improving the quality of teaching, is the focus of higher education institutions.
Higher education in this view is considered as an opportunity to participate in the development process of the individual through a flexible, continuing education mode. All these four concepts of higher education are integrated and give an overall picture of what is higher in higher education. We will realize that research, extension and teaching form the three main functions of higher education, after looking at the activities of colleges and universities. Higher Education role in the Society It is understood that higher education covers teaching, research and extension.
We can list the various roles of higher education in the society if we critically analyze the different concepts of higher education. Higher education supplies the needed human resources in teaching, research, management, planning and design.
Economic growth and scientific and technological advancement of a country are dependent on the higher education system. By our world class higher education infrastructure it is possible to develop indigenous technology and capabilities in food security, agriculture and other industrial areas. Higher education allows people to upgrade their skills and knowledge from time to time based on the societal needs and also provides opportunities for lifelong learning. Following is the list of the roles of the universities or higher education institutions in the modern society by the Kothari Commission The following specific functions are highlighted in the report of higher education.
Quality Assurance Different quality assurance QA agencies have different definitions of quality and methodologies they use to assess quality. The meaning and assumptions they give to the quality and quality assurance policies is different. Due to this the methodologies also vary which they use for quality assessment.
Some QA agencies look into the ways in which higher education institutions fulfill the objectives they aim to achieve and follow the fitness for purpose definition of quality. In this approach more attention is given on the objectives and goals of higher education institutions and the diversity of institution. Some quality assurance agencies give importance to predetermined sets of standards for the higher education institutions. The focus is compliance to norms.
Some QA agencies aim to check only the minimum requirements for a particular status. Some quality assurance agencies on the other hand, set standards of high quality. In these cases, not just fulfillment of minimum requirements but the frame of reference for assessment is excellence. By identifying the processes and practices required in quality systems, some quality assurance agencies set standards for quality and then use these as benchmarks for relative judgment.
Some QA agencies identify indicators by which systems performance can be measured and in these approaches, the terms indicator of quality and performance indicator are used interchangeably as standards and benchmarks. To refer to different measures, the same term indeed can be used by different bodies.
Even having strong internal quality assurance mechanisms, well developed systems depends more on the benchmarks and indicators that higher education institutions set for themselves than on externally set ones. Peer assessment and improvement towards higher levels of performance are central to the quality assurance framework, in those systems. There is a mix of self-improvement and accountability concerns for higher education institutions in emerging systems, quality assurance agencies use both peer review and quantitative indicators carefully.
QA unit can also change.
Some quality assurance agencies follow the program approach, others follow the institutional approach. QA must necessarily cover aspects such as students, academic staff, academic programs, internal quality control, research, outreach, organization, management and infrastructure, although the unit of QA might change. The difference lies in the extent and focus of reliance on peer assessment vs. The judgment of higher education practitioners or the need for quality assurance to use peer assessment is well known.see
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Even of approaches that rely more on quantitative norms and indicators this is true. Quality in Teaching We may be having this question in our mind as principals, heads of departments, teachers and policy makers and planners in education that why we should worry about quality? Everyone should be conscious of why we should worry about quality of our institutions, programs and teaching and rather quality should be a bottom-up approach and not just because of the UGC directive that you should think of quality.
In such a situation, to survive educational institutions will have to worry about their quality. Customers are now demanding for receiving employable skill sets and good quality teaching; due to which now we should be constantly worry about the relevance of our courses as per the requirement of the market. Institutions should consciously make efforts to improve quality of the educational facilities and provisions as well as educational transactions. Concern for quality will inform the stakeholders about taking appropriate decisions and ensure accountability of the funds utilized.
Thus we can consider quality as a mechanism of monitoring. We take a position that this is indeed the main function of assessment. But the original use of this word was quite different. Indeed, the word is till used in relation to income tax a tax assessment and various kinds of insurance assessment of loss. Assessment is formally defined as a measure of performance. In measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs, usually educational assessment is the process of documenting.
However in the middle age, the status of women got down to a great extent. Women are considered in the society only to perform duties like bring up children, caring every family member, and other household activities.
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There are old and traditional faith of people coming out for years that men are for thy field whereas women are only for the home. Now-a-days, women are breaking all the barriers of social issues and problems against them in the society. They are getting ahead and enjoying equality of status in almost all fields because of being financially independent and economically sound. Earlier to this women were facing a lot of problems because of male dominated, patriarchal society system, practice of old traditional believes, etc. Women were only responsible to the traditional roles like child bearing and child rearing.
In the modern world, where women status has been improved a little while, still they are facing problems. They have to perform both family and professional responsibilities together without the help of their husbands. In some cases, the condition of women become more embarrassed when they get tortured by their family members instead of getting help. Sexual harassment is more common at homes as well as in the offices by the family members, relatives, neighbors, friends, boss, etc. They have to suffer a lot in their daily life to nourish their career as well as saving their family relationships.
There are various issues and problems which women generally face in the society in India.